Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin which is also known as vitamin B-2 or vitamin G. Riboflavin plays a key role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body. In the body, riboflavin is converted into flavin mononucleotide (FMN), which is then converted to the coenzyme, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). As part of the electron transport chain in the mitochondria, FAD is central to each cell’s energy production. These two flavoproteins and other enzymes that rely on them are also involved in the metabolism of several other vitamins.
St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum), a common shrub-like perennial, bears bright yellow flowers that contain numerous therapeutic substances when dried. Europeans have used the herb for centuries to calm jangled nerves and heal wounds, among other ills. And so it’s not surprising that North Americans have recently embraced its use as a treatment for depression and conditions associated with it.
For centuries, healers relied on the feathery green leaves of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) to treat headaches, stomach upset, rheumatoid arthritis, and menstrual problems. The bright yellow and white blossoms of this flower, which grows wild throughout Europe and South America, emit a powerful aroma that was once thought to purify the air and prevent disease. Feverfew has also long been used in gardens to repel bees and various insects. And as its common name suggests, it was once popular for reducing fever.